Research Resources

State of the Evidence

We are currently in the process of writing our initial publications, which detail the theoretical basis and applications of the Human Rehabilitation Framework (HRF). While these articles are being finalized, we invite you to explore the extensive body of research articles that have contributed significantly to the development of this innovative approach.

Please note, the articles listed below are not an exhaustive representation; we are continually organizing and updating this list to reflect the latest research. If you would like more insights into our extensive state of the evidence or have specific inquiries, please connect with us for more information.

Pain Experience, Language Influence and Pain Terminology
  • Part III: Pain Terms, A Current List with Definitions and Notes on Usage” (pp 209-214) Classification of Chronic Pain, Second Edition, IASP Task Force on Taxonomy, edited by H. Merskey and N. Bogduk, IASP Press, Seattle, 1994.
  • Gaskin, Darrell J., and Patrick Richard. “The economic costs of pain in the United States.” The Journal of Pain 13.8 (2012): 715-724.
  • Petersen GL, Finnerup NB, Colloca L, et al. The magnitude of nocebo effects in pain: A meta-analysis. Pain2014;155(8):1426–1434.
  • Lin IB, O’sullivan PB, Coffin JA, Mak DB, Toussaint S, Straker LM. Disabling chronic low back pain as an iatrogenic disorder: a qualitative study in Aboriginal Australians. BMJ Open2013;3(4).
  • Barker K, Reid M, Minns Lowe J. (2009) Divided By A Common Language? A Qualitative Study Exploring The use Of Language By Health Professionals Treating Back Pain.  BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders123, (10); 1-10.
  • Setchell, Jenny, et al. “Individuals’ explanations for their persistent or recurrent low back pain: a cross-sectional survey.” BMC musculoskeletal disorders1 (2017): 466.
  • Brinjikji W, Luetmer PH, Comstock B, et al. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations. American Journal of Neuroradiology2014;36(4):811–816.
  • Houben RM, Ostelo RW, Vlaeyen JW, Wolters PM, Peters M, Stomp-van den Berg SG. Health care providers’ orientations towards common low back pain predict perceived harmfulness of physical activities and recommendations regarding return to normal activity. Eur J Pain. Apr 2005;9(2):173-183.
  • Greene DL, Appel AJ, Reinert SE, Palumbo MA. Lumbar disc herniation: evaluation of information on the internet. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). Apr 1 2005;30(7):826-829.
  • Louw A, Diener I, Butler DS, Puentedura EJ. The effect of neuroscience education on pain, disability, anxiety, and stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Dec 2011;92(12):2041-2056.
  • Kendall, N. A. S. “Guide to assessing psychosocial yellow flags in acute low back pain.” Risk factors for long-term disability and work loss(1997).
  • Louw A, Butler DS, Diener I, Puentedura EJ. Development of a preoperative neuroscience educational program for parents with lumbar radiculopathy. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation Association of Academic Physiatrists.May 2013;92(5):446–‐452.
  • Fisher JP, Hassan DT, O’Connor N. BMJ. 1995 Jan 7;310(70).
  • Osborn, Jody, and Stuart WG Derbyshire. “Pain sensation evoked by observing injury in others.” Pain 148.2 (2010): 268-274.
  • Melzack R, Wall PD, Ty TC. Acute pain in an emergency clinic: Latency of onset and descriptor patterns related to different injuries. Pain 1982;14(1):33–43.
  • Desmond DM, Maclachlan M. Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain in the long term after upper limb amputation. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research2010;33(3):279–282.
  • Melzack, Ronald, Patrick D. Wall, and Tony C. Ty. “Acute pain in an emergency clinic: latency of onset and descriptor patterns related to different injuries.” Pain1 (1982): 33-43.
  • Desmond, Deirdre M., and Malcolm MacLachlan. “Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain in the long term after upper limb amputation.” International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 33.3 (2010): 279-282.
  • Bayer, Timothy L., Paul E. Baer, and Charles Early. “Situational and psychophysiological factors in psychologically induced pain.” Pain 44.1 (1991): 45-50.
  • Suri P, Boyko EJ, Goldberg J, Forsberg CW, Jarvik JG. Longitudinal associations between incident lumbar spine MRI findings and chronic low back pain or radicular symptoms: retrospective analysis of data from the longitudinal assessment of imaging and disability of the back (LAIDBACK). BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders BMC Musculoskelet Disord2014;15(1):152.
  • Brinjikji W, Luetmer PH, Comstock B, et al. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations. American Journal of Neuroradiology2014;36(4):811–816.
  • Register, Brad, et al. “Prevalence of abnormal hip findings in asymptomatic participants: a prospective, blinded study.” The American journal of sports medicine12 (2012): 2720-2724.
  • Preston, Catherine, and Roger Newport. “Analgesic effects of multisensory illusions in osteoarthritis.” Rheumatology12 (2011): 2314-2315.
  • Sher, Jerry S., et al. “Abnormal findings on magnetic resonance images of asymptomatic shoulders.” JBJS1 (1995): 10-15.
  • Miniaci, Anthony, et al. “Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers.” The American journal of sports medicine1 (2002): 66-73.
  • Tonosu, Juichi, et al. “The associations between magnetic resonance imaging findings and low back pain: A 10-year longitudinal analysis.” PloS one11 (2017): e0188057.
  • Boorman, Richard S., et al. “What happens to patients when we do not repair their cuff tears? Five-year rotator cuff quality-of-life index outcomes following nonoperative treatment of patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears.” Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery3 (2018): 444-448.
  • Wylde, Vikki, et al. “Persistent pain after joint replacement: prevalence, sensory qualities, and postoperative determinants.” PAIN®3 (2011): 566-572.
  • Liu, Spencer S., et al. “A cross-sectional survey on prevalence and risk factors for persistent postsurgical pain 1 year after total hip and knee replacement.” Regional anesthesia and pain medicine4 (2012): 415-422.
  • Goesling, Jenna, et al. “Trends and predictors of opioid use following total knee and total hip arthroplasty.” Pain6 (2016): 1259.
  • Moseley JB, O’malley K, Petersen NJ, et al. A Controlled Trial of Arthroscopic Surgery for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. New England Journal of Medicine N Engl J Med2002;347(2):81–88.
  • Sihvonen R, Paavola M, Malmivaara A, et al. Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy versus Sham Surgery for a Degenerative Meniscal Tear.New England Journal of Medicine N Engl J Med2013;369(26):2515–2524.
  • Schrøder, Cecilie Piene, et al. “Sham surgery versus labral repair or biceps tenodesis for type II SLAP lesions of the shoulder: a three-armed randomised clinical trial.” Br J Sports Med(2017): bjsports-2016.
  • Beard, David J., et al. “Arthroscopic subacromial decompression for subacromial shoulder pain (CSAW): a multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, placebo-controlled, three-group, randomised surgical trial.” The Lancet(2017).
  • van Yperen, Daan T., et al. “Twenty-Year Follow-up Study Comparing Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in High-Level Athletes.” The American journal of sports medicine5 (2018): 1129-1136.
  • Moseley, L., & Arntz, A. (2007). The context of a noxious stimulus affects the pain it evokes. Pain,133(1), 64-71. Retrieved October 31, 2014, from
  • Moseley, G. Lorimer, et al. “Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences35 (2008): 13169-13173
  • Melzack, Ronald. “Pain and the neuromatrix in the brain.” Journal of dental education12 (2001): 1378-1382.
  • Tolle, Leslie B., and Theodore J. Standiford. “Danger‐associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in acute lung injury.” The Journal of pathology2 (2013): 145-156.
  • Louw A, Diener I, Butler DS, Puentedura EJ. The effect of neuroscience education on pain, disability, anxiety, and stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Dec 2011;92(12):2041-2056.
  • Hyldahl, Robert D., et al. “Running decreases knee intra-articular cytokine and cartilage oligomeric matrix concentrations: a pilot study.” European journal of applied physiology11-12 (2016): 2305-2314.
  • Williams, Paul T. “Effects of running and walking on osteoarthritis and hip replacement risk.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise7 (2013): 1292.
  • Belavý, Daniel L., et al. “Running exercise strengthens the intervertebral disc.” Scientific reports7 (2017): 45975.
  • Alentorn-Geli, Eduard, et al. “The Association of Recreational and Competitive running with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy6 (2017): 373-390.
Functional Contextualism
  • Hayes L, Fryling M. Functional and descriptive contextualism. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. Published online 2019.
  • Finn M, Barnes-Holmes D. In support of reacquainting functional contextualism and interbehaviorism. Journal of contextual behavioral science. Published online 2021.
  • Ross LN, Bassett DS. Causation in neuroscience: keeping mechanism meaningful. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2024 Feb;25(2):81-90. doi: 10.1038/s41583-023-00778-7. Epub 2024 Jan 11. PMID: 38212413.
  • Hayes SC, Hayes LJ, Reese HW. Finding the philosophical core: a review of stephen c. Pepper’s world hypotheses: a study in evidence 1. J Exper Analysis Behavior. 1988;50(1):97-111.
  • Pepper, S. C. (1942). World Hypotheses: A Study in Evidence. United Kingdom: University of California Press.
Evolutionary Sciences
  • Gannon, L. (2002). A critique of evolutionary psychology. Psychology, Evolution & Gender4(2), 173–218.
  • Ceunen E, Vlaeyen JW, Van Diest I. On the Origin of Interoception. Front Psychol. 2016 May 23;7:743. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00743. PMID: 27242642; PMCID: PMC4876111.
  • Wilson DS, Madhavan G, Gelfand MJ, Hayes SC, Atkins PWB, Colwell RR. Multilevel cultural evolution: From new theory to practical applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2023;120(16):e2218222120.
  • Randolph M Nesse, Tinbergen’s four questions: Two proximate, two evolutionary, Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2019, Issue 1, 2019, Page 2,
  • Kozuch B. No pain, no gain (In darwinian fitness): a representational account of affective experience. Erkenntnis (1975-). 2020;85(3):693-714.
  • Wilson DS. This View of Life: Completing the Darwinian Revolution. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group; 2019.
  • Wilson, David S., ‘Two Meanings of Complex Adaptive Systems’, in David S Wilson, and Alan Kirman (eds)Complexity and Evolution: Toward a New Synthesis for Economics (Cambridge, MA, 2016; online edn, MIT Press Scholarship Online, 18 May 2017), 20 Apr. 2024.
  • Edwards DJ. Functional contextual implementation of an evolutionary, entropy-based, and embodied free energy framework: Utilizing Lagrangian mechanics and evolutionary game theory’s truth vs. fitness test of the veridicality of phenomenological experience. Front Psychol. 2023 Apr 11;14:1150743. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1150743. PMID: 37113127; PMCID: PMC10126492.
  • Gomersall T. Complex adaptive systems: a new approach for understanding health practices. Health Psychol Rev. 2018 Dec;12(4):405-418. doi: 10.1080/17437199.2018.1488603. Epub 2018 Sep 24. PMID: 29932851.
  • Wilson D. 3 two meanings of complex adaptive systems.
  • Carmichael, Ted & Hadzikadic, Mirsad. (2019). The Fundamentals of Complex Adaptive Systems. 10.1007/978-3-030-20309-2_1.
  • Gleick, J. (1988). Chaos. United Kingdom: Penguin.
  • Waldrop, M. M. (2019). Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. United States: Open Road Media.
Ergodicity & Idionomics
  • Mangalam M, Kelty-Stephen DG. Ergodic descriptors of non-ergodic stochastic processes. J R Soc Interface. 2022;19(189):20220095.
  • Mangalam M, Sadri A, Hayano J, Watanabe E, Kiyono K, Kelty-Stephen DG. Multifractal foundations of biomarker discovery for heart disease and stroke. Sci Rep. 2023;13(1):18316.
  • Molenaar PC. On the implications of the classical ergodic theorems: analysis of developmental processes has to focus on intra-individual variation. Dev Psychobiol. 2008 Jan;50(1):60-9. doi: 10.1002/dev.20262. PMID: 18085558.
  • Franchi B, Heida M, Lorenzani S. A Mathematical model for Alzheimer’s disease: An approach via stochastic homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. arXiv:190411015 [math]. Published online April 18, 2019.
  • Gomes CMA. The ergodic moment as a way to enable the individual measurement in clinics. Medical Research Archives. 2023;11(2).
  • Sahdra BK, Ciarrochi J, Klimczak KS, Krafft J, Hayes SC, Levin M. Testing the applicability of idionomic statistics in longitudinal studies: The example of ‘doing what matters.’ Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. Published online 2024.
  • Sahdra BK, Ciarrochi J, Fraser MI, et al. The compassion balance: understanding the interrelation of self- and other-compassion for optimal well-being. Mindfulness. Published online 2023.
Process Based Approach
  • Hofmann SG, Hayes SC, Lorscheid DN. Learning process-based therapy: A skills training manual for targeting the core processes of psychological change in clinical practice. New Harbinger Publications; 2021.
  • Hayes SC, Hofmann SG, Ciarrochi J. A process-based approach to psychological diagnosis and treatment: The conceptual and treatment utility of an extended evolutionary meta model. Clinical psychology review. 2020;82:101908.
  • Hofmann SG, Hayes SC. The future of intervention science: Process-based therapy. Clinical Psychological Science. 2019;7(1):37-50.
  • Hayes SC, Ciarrochi J, Hofmann SG, Chin F, Sahdra B. Evolving an idionomic approach to processes of change: Towards a unified personalized science of human improvement. Behav Res Ther. Sep 2022;156:104155. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2022.104155
  • Ong CW, Ciarrochi J, Hofmann SG, Karekla M, Hayes SC. Through the extended evolutionary meta-model, and what ACT found there: ACT as a process-based therapy. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. Published online 2024.
  • Salkovskis PM, Sighvatsson MB, Sigurdsson JF. How effective psychological treatments work: mechanisms of change in cognitive behavioural therapy and beyond. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. Published online 2024.
  • Hayes SC, Hofmann SG, Ciarrochi J. The Idionomic Future of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: What Stands Out From Criticisms of ACT Development. Behav Ther. 2023 Nov;54(6):1036-1063. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2023.07.011. Epub 2023 Jul 27. PMID: 37863584; PMCID: PMC10589451.
  • McCracken LM. Personalized pain management: Is it time for process-based therapy for particular people with chronic pain? Eur J Pain. 2023 Oct;27(9):1044-1055. doi: 10.1002/ejp.2091. Epub 2023 Feb 24. PMID: 36755478.
  • Ciarrochi, Joseph & Hayes, Steven & Hofmann, Stefan. (2021). Assessing Processes of Change in Psychological Interventions: The Process-Based Assessment Tool (PBAT). 10.31234/
  • Mulder T. A process-oriented model of human motor behavior: toward a theory-based rehabilitation approach. Phys Ther. 1991 Feb;71(2):157-64. doi: 10.1093/ptj/71.2.157. PMID: 1989011.
Psychological Flexibility
  • Kashdan TB, Rottenberg J. Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010 Nov;30(7):865-78. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.001. Epub 2010 Mar 12. PMID: 21151705; PMCID: PMC2998793.
  • Lin J, Klatt LI, McCracken LM, Baumeister H. Psychological flexibility mediates the effect of an online-based acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: an investigation of change processes. Pain. 2018 Apr;159(4):663-672. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001134. PMID: 29320375.
  • Pakenham KI, Landi G, Cattivelli R, Grandi S, Tossani E. Identification of psychological flexibility and inflexibility profiles during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Clin Psychol. 2023 Oct;79(10):2225-2250. doi: 10.1002/jclp.23536. Epub 2023 May 16. PMID: 37192495.
  • Ong CW, Woods DW, Franklin ME, Saunders SM, Neal-Barnett AM, Compton SN, Twohig MP. The role of psychological flexibility in acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy for trichotillomania: Moderation and mediation findings. Behav Res Ther. 2023 May;164:104302. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2023.104302. Epub 2023 Mar 21. PMID: 37030243; PMCID: PMC10115155.
  • Whiting DL, Deane FP, Simpson GK, McLeod HJ, Ciarrochi J. Cognitive and psychological flexibility after a traumatic brain injury and the implications for treatment in acceptance-based therapies: A conceptual review. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2017 Mar;27(2):263-299. doi: 10.1080/09602011.2015.1062115. Epub 2015 Jul 9. PMID: 26156228.
  • Guerrini Usubini A, Varallo G, Granese V, Cattivelli R, Consoli S, Bastoni I, Volpi C, Castelnuovo G, Molinari E. The Impact of Psychological Flexibility on Psychological Well-Being in Adults With Obesity. Front Psychol. 2021 Mar 22;12:636933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.636933. PMID: 33828505; PMCID: PMC8019785.
  • Yucel D, Fan W. Workplace flexibility, work-family interface, and psychological distress: differences by family caregiving obligations and gender. Appl Res Qual Life. 2023 Mar 27:1-23. doi: 10.1007/s11482-023-10164-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37359217; PMCID: PMC10041508.
  • Türk N, Arslan G, Kaya A, Güç E, Turan ME. Psychological maltreatment, meaning-centered coping, psychological flexibility, and suicide cognitions: A moderated mediation model. Child Abuse Negl. 2024 Apr 2;152:106735. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2024.106735. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38569454.
  • Ramaci T, Bellini D, Presti G, Santisi G. Psychological Flexibility and Mindfulness as Predictors of Individual Outcomes in Hospital Health Workers. Front Psychol. 2019 Jun 12;10:1302. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01302. PMID: 31249541; PMCID: PMC6582771.
  • Yang X, Ebo TO, Wong K, Wang X. Relationships between psychological flexibility and internet gaming disorder among adolescents: Mediation effects of depression and maladaptive cognitions. PLoS One. 2023 Feb 3;18(2):e0281269. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0281269. PMID: 36735753; PMCID: PMC9897526.
  • Tindle R, Hemi A, Moustafa AA. Social support, psychological flexibility and coping mediate the association between COVID-19 related stress exposure and psychological distress. Sci Rep. 2022 May 23;12(1):8688. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-12262-w. PMID: 35606392; PMCID: PMC9126245.
  • Kroemeke A, Dudek J, Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka M. The role of psychological flexibility in the meaning-reconstruction process in cancer: The intensive longitudinal study protocol. PLoS One. 2022 Oct 13;17(10):e0276049. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0276049. PMID: 36228034; PMCID: PMC9560549.
  • Proctor CJ, Reiman A, Best LA. Working after cancer: psychological flexibility and the quality of working life. J Cancer Surviv. 2024 Feb;18(1):196-206. doi: 10.1007/s11764-023-01364-7. Epub 2023 Mar 24. PMID: 36964294.
  • Valdivia-Salas S, Martín-Albo J, Cruz A, Villanueva-Blasco VJ, Jiménez TI. Psychological Flexibility With Prejudices Increases Empathy and Decreases Distress Among Adolescents: A Spanish Validation of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Stigma. Front Psychol. 2021 Jan 22;11:565638. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.565638. PMID: 33551895; PMCID: PMC7862551.
  • Yıldız E, Yıldırım Ö. The mediating role of psychological flexibility in the relationship between psychotic symptom severity and depression in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2024 Mar 12. doi: 10.1111/jpm.13040. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38469987.
  • Landi G, Pakenham KI, Crocetti E, Tossani E, Grandi S. The trajectories of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic and the protective role of psychological flexibility: A four-wave longitudinal study. J Affect Disord. 2022 Jun 15;307:69-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.03.067. Epub 2022 Apr 1. PMID: 35378147; PMCID: PMC8972980.
  • Zukerman G, Maor M, Reichard T, Ben-Itzhak S. Beyond illness perception: the effects of psychological flexibility when coping with a chronic medical condition. Psychol Health Med. 2023 Jul-Dec;28(7):1795-1802. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2022.2067344. Epub 2022 Apr 19. PMID: 35440254.
  • Zukerman G, Maor M, Reichard T, Ben-Itzhak S. Does older mean flexible? Psychological flexibility and illness cognitions in chronic medical conditions – the moderating effect of age. Psychol Health Med. 2023 Jul-Dec;28(7):1844-1860. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2023.2206145. Epub 2023 Apr 23. PMID: 37088966.
  • Akbari M, Seydavi M, Zamani E. The mediating role of personalized psychological flexibility in the association between distress intolerance and psychological distress: A national survey during the fourth waves of COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2021 Nov;28(6):1416-1426. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2685. Epub 2021 Nov 11. PMID: 34731531; PMCID: PMC8653034.
  • Jeffords JR, Bayly BL, Bumpus MF, Hill LG. Investigating the Relationship between University Students’ Psychological Flexibility and College Self-Efficacy. J Coll Stud Ret. 2020 Aug 1;22(2):351-372. doi: 10.1177/1521025117751071. Epub 2018 Jan 9. PMID: 33867862; PMCID: PMC8049598.
  • Cano A, Corley AM, Clark SM, Martinez SC. A Couple-Based Psychological Treatment for Chronic Pain and Relationship Distress. Cogn Behav Pract. 2018 Feb;25(1):119-134. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2017.02.003. Epub 2017 Mar 21. PMID: 29497271; PMCID: PMC5826564.
  • Morton C, Mooney TA, Lozano LL, Adams EA, Makriyianis HM, Liss M. Psychological inflexibility moderates the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and disordered eating. Eat Behav. 2020 Jan;36:101345. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.101345. Epub 2019 Nov 15. PMID: 31760368.
  • McCracken LM. Committed action: an application of the psychological flexibility model to activity patterns in chronic pain. J Pain. 2013 Aug;14(8):828-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2013.02.009. Epub 2013 May 4. PMID: 23651881.
  • Wicksell RK, Olsson GL, Hayes SC. Psychological flexibility as a mediator of improvement in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for patients with chronic pain following whiplash. Eur J Pain. 2010 Nov;14(10):1059.e1-1059.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2010.05.001. Epub 2010 Jun 9. PMID: 20538493.
  • Williams KE, Ciarrochi J, Heaven PC. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents. J Youth Adolesc. 2012 Aug;41(8):1053-66. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9744-0. Epub 2012 Feb 7. PMID: 22311519.
  • Vowles KE, McCracken LM. Comparing the role of psychological flexibility and traditional pain management coping strategies in chronic pain treatment outcomes. Behav Res Ther. 2010 Feb;48(2):141-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.09.011. Epub 2009 Oct 8. PMID: 19853243.
  • Sneddon LU. Comparative Physiology of Nociception and Pain. Physiology (Bethesda). 2018 Jan 1;33(1):63-73. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00022.2017. PMID: 29212893.
  • Woller SA, Eddinger KA, Corr M, Yaksh TL. An overview of pathways encoding nociception. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017 Sep-Oct;35 Suppl 107(5):40-46. Epub 2017 Sep 29. PMID: 28967373; PMCID: PMC6636838.
  • Sunzini F, Schrepf A, Clauw DJ, Basu N. The Biology of Pain: Through the Rheumatology Lens. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2023 May;75(5):650-660. doi: 10.1002/art.42429. Epub 2023 Mar 20. PMID: 36599071.
  • Ge W, Khalsa PS. Encoding of compressive stress during indentation by group III and IV muscle mechano-nociceptors in rat gracilis muscle. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Feb;89(2):785-92. doi: 10.1152/jn.00624.2002. PMID: 12574456.
  • Walters ET, Crook RJ, Neely GG, Price TJ, Smith ESJ. Persistent nociceptor hyperactivity as a painful evolutionary adaptation. Trends Neurosci. 2023 Mar;46(3):211-227. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2022.12.007. Epub 2023 Jan 5. PMID: 36610893; PMCID: PMC9974896.
  • Di Lernia D, Serino S, Riva G. Pain in the body. Altered interoception in chronic pain conditions: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Dec;71:328-341. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.015. Epub 2016 Sep 18. PMID: 27654341.
  • Cohen M, Quintner J, Weisman A. “Nociplastic pain”: a challenge to nosology and to nociception. The Journal of Pain. 2023;24(12):2131-2139.
  • Stein R, Capaday C. The modulation of human reflexes during functional motor tasks. Trends in Neurosciences. Published online 1988.
  • Sandrini G, Serrao M, Rossi P, Romaniello A, Cruccu G, Willer JC. The lower limb flexion reflex in humans. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Dec;77(6):353-95. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.11.003. Epub 2005 Dec 28. PMID: 16386347.
  • Serrao M, Ranavolo A, Andersen OK, Don R, Draicchio F, Conte C, Di Fabio R, Perrotta A, Bartolo M, Padua L, Santilli V, Sandrini G, Pierelli F. Reorganization of multi-muscle and joint withdrawal reflex during arm movements in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012 Mar;123(3):527-40. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2011.07.031. Epub 2011 Aug 6. PMID: 21824814.
  • Serrao M, Pierelli F, Don R, Ranavolo A, Cacchio A, Currà A, Sandrini G, Frascarelli M, Santilli V. Kinematic and electromyographic study of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the upper limbs during rest and movement. J Neurosci. 2006 Mar 29;26(13):3505-13. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5160-05.2006. PMID: 16571758; PMCID: PMC6673871.
  • Gadhvi M, Moore MJ, Waseem M. Physiology, Sensory System. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL); 2023. PMID: 31613436.
  • Thacker M, Dip G, Grad P, Fcsp DM. Louis Gifford – revolutionary: the Mature Organism Model, an embodied cognitive perspective of pain.
Central Sensitization
  • Ji, Ru-Rong, et al. “Neuroinflammation and central sensitization in chronic and widespread pain.” Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists(2018).
  • Woolf, Clifford J. “Central sensitization: implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain.” Pain3 (2011): S2-S15.
  • Ji, Ru-Rong, et al. “Central sensitization and LTP: do pain and memory share similar mechanisms?.” Trends in neurosciences12 (2003): 696-705.
  • Desmeules, Jules Alexandre, et al. “Neurophysiologic evidence for a central sensitization in patients with fibromyalgia.” Arthritis & Rheumatology5 (2003): 1420-1429.
  • Meeus, Mira, and Jo Nijs. “Central sensitization: a biopsychosocial explanation for chronic widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.” Clinical rheumatology4 (2007): 465-473.
  • Nijs, Jo, Boudewijn Van Houdenhove, and Rob AB Oostendorp. “Recognition of central sensitization in patients with musculoskeletal pain: application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice.” Manual therapy2 (2010): 135-141.
  • Gwilym, Stephen E., et al. “Psychophysical and functional imaging evidence supporting the presence of central sensitization in a cohort of osteoarthritis patients.” Arthritis Care & Research9 (2009): 1226-1234.
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Tissue Capacity
  • Andarawis‐Puri, Nelly, Evan L. Flatow, and Louis J. Soslowsky. “Tendon basic science: development, repair, regeneration, and healing.” Journal of Orthopaedic Research6 (2015): 780-784.
  • Kates, Stephen L., et al. “Outside the Bone: What Is Happening Systemically to Influence Fracture Healing?.” Journal of orthopaedic trauma32 (2018): S33-S36.
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  • Malliaras, Peter, et al. “Achilles and patellar tendinopathy loading programmes.” Sports medicine4 (2013): 267-286.
  • Lederman, Eyal. “A process approach in osteopathy: beyond the structural model.” International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine23 (2017): 22-35.
  • Bhasin, Shalender, et al. “Effect of protein intake on lean body mass in functionally limited older men: a randomized clinical trial.” JAMA internal medicine4 (2018): 530-541.
  • Pullen, K., et al. “Are energy and protein requirements met in hospital?.” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics2 (2018): 178-187.
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  • Van Tulder, Maurits, Antti Malmivaara, and Bart Koes. “Repetitive strain injury.” The Lancet9575 (2007): 1815-1822.
  • Curry, William H., et al. “Lumbar spine endplate fractures: biomechanical evaluation and clinical considerations through experimental induction of injury.” Journal of Orthopaedic Research6 (2016): 1084-1091.
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  • Özaktay, A. Cüneyt, et al. “Effects of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor on sensitivity of dorsal root ganglion and peripheral receptive fields in rats.” European spine journal10 (2006): 1529-1537.
  • Olmarker, Kjell, and Björn Rydevik. “Selective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α prevents nucleus pulposus-induced thrombus formation, intraneural edema, and reduction of nerve conduction velocity: possible implications for future pharmacologic treatment strategies of sciatica.” Spine8 (2001): 863-869.
  • Wetzel FT, Donelson R. The role of repeated end-range/pain response assessment in the management of symptomatic lumbar discs. Spine J. 2003;3(2):146-154.
  • Fazey PJ, Song S, Monsas S, et al. An MRI investigation of intervertebral disc deformation in response to torsion. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006;21(5):538-542. doi: 10.1016/j. clinbiomech.2005.12.008.
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  • Broetz D, Hahn U, Maschke E, Wick W, Kueker W, Weller M. Lumbar disk prolapse: Response to mechanical physiotherapy in the absence of changes in magnetic resonance imaging. report of 11 cases. NeuroRehabilitation. 2008;23(3):289-294.
  • Edmondston SJ, Song S, Bricknell RV, et al. MRI evaluation of lumbar spine flexion and extension in asymptomatic individuals. Man Ther. 2000;5(3):158-164. doi: 10.1054/math.2000.0356
  • Abdollah, Vahid, Eric C. Parent, and Michele C. Battié. “MRI evaluation of the effects of extension exercises on the disc fluid content and location of the centroid of the fluid distribution.” Musculoskeletal Science and Practice33 (2018): 67-70.
  • Ming Zhong, M. D., and Jin Tao Liu. “Incidence of spontaneous resorption of lumbar disc herniation: a meta-analysis.” Pain physician20 (2017): E45-E52.
  • Chiu, Chun-Chieh, et al. “The probability of spontaneous regression of lumbar herniated disc: a systematic review.” Clinical rehabilitation2 (2015): 184-195.
  • Cook JL et al. “Rehabilitation will increase the ‘capacity’ of your …insert musculoskeletal tissue here….” Defining ’tissue capacity’: a core concept for clinicians. Br J Sports Med. 2015
Movement and Posture
  • Grob, D., H. Frauenfelder, and A. F. Mannion. “The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain.” European Spine Journal5 (2007): 669-678.
  • Gay, Ralph E. “The curve of the cervical spine: variations and significance.” Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics9 (1993): 591-594.
  • Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza, and Amir Massoud Arab. “Relationship between mechanical factors and incidence of low back pain.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy9 (2002): 447-460.
  • Christensen, Sanne Toftgaard, and Jan Hartvigsen. “Spinal curves and health: a systematic critical review of the epidemiological literature dealing with associations between sagittal spinal curves and health.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics9 (2008): 690-714.
  • Pope, Malcolm H. “Risk indicators in low back pain.” Annals of medicine5 (1989): 387-392.
  • Richards, Karen V., et al. “Neck posture clusters and their association with biopsychosocial factors and neck pain in Australian adolescents.” (2016): 1576-1587.
  • Chaléat-Valayer, Emmanuelle, et al. “Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in chronic low back pain.” European spine journal5 (2011): 634.
  • Smith, Anne, Peter O’sullivan, and Leon Straker. “Classification of sagittal thoraco-lumbo-pelvic alignment of the adolescent spine in standing and its relationship to low back pain.” Spine19 (2008): 2101-2107.
  • Hodges, Moseley (2003) Experimental muscle pain changes feedforward postural responses
    of the trunk muscles. Exp Brain Res (2003) 151:262–271 
  • O’Sullivan, Peter B., et al. “Association of biopsychosocial factors with degree of slump in sitting posture and self-report of back pain in adolescents: a cross-sectional study.” Physical therapy4 (2011): 470-483.
  • Dreischarf, Marcel, et al. “Differences between clinical “snap-shot” and “real-life” assessments of lumbar spine alignment and motion–What is the “real” lumbar lordosis of a human being?.” Journal of biomechanics5 (2016): 638-644.
  • Cook JL et al. “Rehabilitation will increase the ‘capacity’ of your …insert musculoskeletal tissue here….” Defining ’tissue capacity’: a core concept for clinicians. Br J Sports Med. 2015.
  • Weinstein, Stuart L., et al. “Health and function of patients with untreated idiopathic scoliosis: a 50-year natural history study.” Jama5 (2003): 559-567.
  • Lenssinck, Marie-Louise B., et al. “Effect of bracing and other conservative interventions in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents: a systematic review of clinical trials.” Physical therapy12 (2005): 1329-1339.
  • Weiss, H. R., and D. Goodall. “The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) according to present evidence. A systematic review.” European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine2 (2008): 177-193.
  • Glassman, Steven D., et al. “The costs and benefits of nonoperative management for adult scoliosis.” Spine5 (2010): 578-582.
  • Gorman, S. “Contemporary issues and theories of motor control, motor learning, and neuroplasticity: assessment of movement and posture.” Neurological Rehabilitation, fifth ed. Mosby Elsevier, USA(2007): 56-70.
  • van Dieën, Jaap H., Luc PJ Selen, and Jacek Cholewicki. “Trunk muscle activation in low-back pain patients, an analysis of the literature.” Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology4 (2003): 333-351.
  • Pirouzi, Soraya, et al. “Low back pain patients demonstrate increased hip extensor muscle activity during standardized submaximal rotation efforts.” Spine26 (2006): E999-E1005.
  • Falla, Deborah, et al. “Reduced task-induced variations in the distribution of activity across back muscle regions in individuals with low back pain.” PAIN®5 (2014): 944-953.
  • Shojaei, Iman, et al. “Timing and magnitude of lumbar spine contribution to trunk forward bending and backward return in patients with acute low back pain.” Journal of biomechanics53 (2017): 71-77.
  • Van Deun, Sara, et al. “Relationship of chronic ankle instability to muscle activation patterns during the transition from double-leg to single-leg stance.” The American journal of sports medicine2 (2007): 274-281.
  • Brown, Cathleen, Bradley Bowser, and Kathy J. Simpson. “Movement variability during single leg jump landings in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability.” Clinical Biomechanics1 (2012): 52-63.
  • Steiger, F., et al. “Is a positive clinical outcome after exercise therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain contingent upon a corresponding improvement in the targeted aspect (s) of performance? A systematic review.” European Spine Journal4 (2012): 575-598.
  • Wong, Arnold YL, et al. “Do changes in transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus during conservative treatment explain changes in clinical outcomes related to nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review.” The Journal of Pain4 (2014): 377-e1.
  • Turgut, Elif, Irem Duzgun, and Gul Baltaci. “Effects of scapular stabilization exercise training on scapular kinematics, disability, and pain in subacromial impingement: a randomized controlled trial.” Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation10 (2017): 1915-1923.
  • Smith, Benjamin E., Chris Littlewood, and Stephen May. “An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis.” BMC musculoskeletal disorders1 (2014): 416.
  • Saner, Jeannette, et al. “A tailored exercise program versus general exercise for a subgroup of patients with low back pain and movement control impairment: a randomised controlled trial with one-year follow-up.” Manual therapy5 (2015): 672-679.
  • George, Steven Z., et al. “Brief psychosocial education, not core stabilization, reduced incidence of low back pain: results from the Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) cluster randomized trial.” BMC medicine1 (2011): 128.
  • Leinonen, Ville, et al. “Back and hip extensor activities during trunk flexion/extension: effects of low back pain and rehabilitation.” Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation1 (2000): 32-37.
  • Ferber, Reed, Karen D. Kendall, and Lindsay Farr. “Changes in knee biomechanics after a hip-abductor strengthening protocol for runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome.” Journal of athletic training2 (2011): 142-149.
  • Vasseljen, Ottar, et al. “Effect of core stability exercises on feed-forward activation of deep abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.” Spine13 (2012): 1101-1108.
  • Mannion, A. F., et al. “Spine stabilisation exercises in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a good clinical outcome is not associated with improved abdominal muscle function.” European Spine Journal7 (2012): 1301-1310.
  • Turgut, Elif, Irem Duzgun, and Gul Baltaci. “Effects of scapular stabilization exercise training on scapular kinematics, disability, and pain in subacromial impingement: a randomized controlled trial.” Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation10 (2017): 1915-1923.
  • Kingma, Idsart, Gert S. Faber, and Jaap H. van Dieen. “How to lift a box that is too large to fit between the knees.” Ergonomics10 (2010): 1228-1238.
  • McKean, Mark R., Peter K. Dunn, and Brendan J. Burkett. “The lumbar and sacrum movement pattern during the back squat exercise.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research10 (2010): 2731-2741.
  • Meuffels, Duncan Edward, et al. “Ten year follow-up study comparing conservative versus operative treatment of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. A matched-pair analysis of high level athletes.” British journal of sports medicine5 (2009): 347-351.
  • Jordan, Kimberlee, and Karl M. Newell. “The structure of variability in human walking and running is speed-dependent.” Exercise and sport sciences reviews4 (2008): 200-204.
  • Stergiou, Nicholas, and Leslie M. Decker. “Human movement variability, nonlinear dynamics, and pathology: is there a connection?.” Human movement science5 (2011): 869-888.
  • Mogenson, Gordon J., Douglas L. Jones, and Chi Yiu Yim. “From motivation to action: functional interface between the limbic system and the motor system.” Progress in neurobiology2-3 (1980): 69-97.
  • Bernstein NA. The Coordination and Regulation of Movements. Pergamon Press; Oxford: 1967.
  • Glasgow, Philip, Christopher M. Bleakley, and Nicola Phillips. “Being able to adapt to variable stimuli: the key driver in injury and illness prevention?.” (2013): 64-65.
  • Hamill, Joseph, Christopher Palmer, and Richard EA Van Emmerik. “Coordinative variability and overuse injury.” Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology1 (2012): 45.
  • van Dieën, Jaap H., and Michiel P. de Looze. “Directionality of anticipatory activation of trunk muscles in a lifting task depends on load knowledge.” Experimental brain research3 (1999): 397-404.
  • Chan, Z. Y. S., Zhang, J. H. W., Au, I. P. H., An, W. W., Schum, G. L. K., Ng, G. Y. F., & Cheung, R. T. H. (2017). Gait retraining lowers injury risk in novice distance runners: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Sports Medicine. doi:AMJSPORTS/2017/221127.
  • Butler, T., et al. “Human fear-related motor neurocircuitry.” Neuroscience1 (2007): 1-7.
  • Trost, Zina, et al. “Pain-related fear predicts reduced spinal motion following experimental back injury.” PAIN®5 (2012): 1015-1021.
  • Sung, Won, et al. “Trunk motor control deficits in acute and subacute low back pain are not associated with pain or fear of movement.” The Spine Journal8 (2015): 1772-1782.
  • Moseley, G. Lorimer, and Paul W. Hodges. “Reduced variability of postural strategy prevents normalization of motor changes induced by back pain: a risk factor for chronic trouble?.” Behavioral neuroscience2 (2006): 474.
  • McGorry, Raymond W., and Jia-Hua Lin. “Flexion relaxation and its relation to pain and function over the duration of a back pain episode.” PLoS One6 (2012): e39207.
  • Floyd, W. F., and P. H. S. Silver. “The function of the erectores spinae muscles in certain movements and postures in man.” The Journal of physiology1 (1955): 184-203.
  • Callaghan, Jack P., and Nadine M. Dunk. “Examination of the flexion relaxation phenomenon in erector spinae muscles during short duration slumped sitting.” Clinical Biomechanics17.5 (2002): 353-360.
Manual Therapy


  • Alter, M. (2004). Types and Varieties of Stretching. In Science of Flexibility(3rd ed., pp. 159-162). Human Kinetics.
  • Jeffreys, I. (2008). Warm-up and Stretching. In Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning(3rd ed., pp. 296-301). Human Kinetics.
  • Herda, T., Cramer, J., Ryan, E., McHugh, M., & Stout, J. (2008). Acute effects of static versus dynamic stretching on isometric peak torque, electromyography, and mechanomyography of the biceps femoris muscle. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,22(3), 809-817.
  • Winchester, J., Nelson, A., Landin, D., Young, M., & Schexnayder, I. (2008). Static stretching impairs sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,22(1), 13-19.
  • Behm, D., Bambury, A., Cahill, F., & Power, K. (2004). Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time, and movement time. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise,36(8), 1397-1402.
  • Young, W., & Elliott, S. (2001). Acute effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, and maximum voluntary contractions on explosive force production and jumping performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,72(3), 273-279.
  • Pope, R., Herbert, R., Kirwan, J., & Graham, B. (2000). A randomized trial of preexercise stretching for prevention of lower-limb injury. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise,32(2), 271-277.
  • Shrier, I. (1999). Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of local muscle injury: A critical review of the clinical and basic science literature. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine,9(4), 221-227.
  • D. Faigenbaum, M. Bellucci, A. Bernieri, B. Bakker, and K. Hoorens, “Acute Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Fitness Performance in Children,” The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 19, 2005, pp. 376–381.
  • Little, T., & William, A. (2006). Effects of differential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high-speed motor capacities in professional soccer players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,20(1), 203-207.
  • McMillian, D., Moore, J., Hatler, B., & Taylor, D. (2006). Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: The effect on power and agility performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,20(3), 492-499.
  • Yamaguchi, T., & Ishii, K. (2005). Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,19(3), 677-683.
  • Yamaguchi, T., & Ishii, K. (2005). Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,19(3), 677-683.
  • Van Gelder, L. H., & Bartz, S. D. (2011). The effect of acute stretching on agility performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research25(11), 3014-3021.
  • Amako M, Oda T, Masuoka K, Yokoi H, Campisi P. Effect of static stretching on prevention of injuries for military recruits. Mil Med. 2003;168(6):442-6.
  • Katalinic OM, Harvey LA, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Lannin NA, Schurr K. (2010) Stretch for the treatment and prevention of contractures. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD007455. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007455.pub2.
  • Konrad, A., & Tilp, M. (2014). Increased range of motion after static stretching is not due to changes in muscle and tendon structures. Clinical Biomechanics,29(6), 636-642.
  • Magnusson, S. (1998). Passive properties of human skeletal muscle during stretch maneuvers. A review. Scand J Med Sci Sports,8(2), 65-77.
  • Magnusson, S., Simonsen, E., Aagaard, P., Boesen, J., Johannsen, F., & Kjaer, M. (1997). Determinants of musculoskeletal flexibility: Viscoelastic properties, cross-sectional area, EMG and stretch tolerance. Scand J Med Sci Sports,7(4), 195-202.
  • Weppler, C., & Magnusson, P. (2010). Increasing muscle extensibility: A matter of increasing length or modifying sensation? Physical Therapy,90(3), 438-449.
  • Konrad, A., & Tilp, M. (2014). Increased range of motion after static stretching is not due to changes in muscle and tendon structures. Clinical Biomechanics,29(6), 636-642.
  • Koliaskina, G., Beme, D., Buravlev, V., & Faktor, M. (1975). Several aspects of the study of human embryo brains. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova,75(7), 1079-1082.
  • Nelson, A., Kokkonen, J., Winchester, J., Kalani, W., Peterson, K., Kenly, M., & Arnall, D. (2012). A 10-week stretching program increases strength in the contralateral muscle. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,26(3), 832-839. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182281b41.


IT Band

  • Willett, Gilbert M., et al. “An anatomic investigation of the Ober test.” The American journal of sports medicine3 (2016): 696-701.
  • Fairclough, John, et al. “Is iliotibial band syndrome really a friction syndrome?.” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport2 (2007): 74-76.
  • Louw, Maryke, and Clare Deary. “The biomechanical variables involved in the aetiology of iliotibial band syndrome in distance runners–A systematic review of the literature.” Physical Therapy in sport1 (2014): 64-75.
  • Chaudhry, H., Bukiet, B., Ji, Z., Stecco, A., & Findley, T. (2014). Deformations experienced in the human skin, adipose tissue, and fascia in osteopathic manipulative medicine. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association,114(10), 780-787
  • Eng, Carolyn M., et al. “The capacity of the human iliotibial band to store elastic energy during running.” Journal of biomechanics12 (2015): 3341-3348.
  • Falvey, E. C., et al. “Iliotibial band syndrome: an examination of the evidence behind a number of treatment options.” Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports4 (2010): 580-587.


Protection Behavior / Post Antalgic Patterning

  • Crosbie, J., Green, T., & Refshauge, K. (1999). Effects of reduced ankle dorsiflexion following lateral ligament sprain on temporal and spatial gait parameters. Gait Posture,9(3), 167-172.
  • Gribble, P. A., Hertel, J., Denegar, C.R., & Buckley, W. E. (2004). The effects of fatigue and chronic ankle instability on dynamic postural control. Journal of Athletic Training,  39(4) 321-329.
  • Hug, F., Hodges, P., & Tucker, K. (2014). Task dependency of motor adaptations to an acute noxious stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology,111(11), 2298-2306.



  • Schleip, R., Klingler, W., & Lehmann-Horn, F. (2005). Active fascial contractility: Fascia may be able to contract in a smooth muscle-like manner and thereby influence musculoskeletal dynamics. Medical Hypotheses,65(2), 273-277.
  • Bereznick, D., Ross, J., & McGill, S. (2002). The frictional properties at the thoracic skin – fascia interface: Implications in spine manipulation. Clinical Biomechanics,17(4), 297-303.
  • Wu, J., Dong, R., & Schopper, A. (2004). Analysis of effects of friction on the deformation behavior of soft tissue in unconfined compression tests. Journal of Biomechanics,37(1), 147-155.


Scar Tissue

  • Shin, Thuzar M., and Jeremy S. Bordeaux. “The role of massage in scar management: a literature review.” Dermatologic Surgery3 (2012): 414-423.
  • Reurink, Gustaaf, et al. “No association between fibrosis on magnetic resonance imaging at return to play and hamstring reinjury risk.” The American journal of sports medicine5 (2015): 1228-1234.
  • Brosseau L, Casimiro L, Milne S, Welch V, Shea B, Tugwell P, Wells GA. Deep transverse friction massage for treating tendinitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003528. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003528.
  • Bereznick, D., Ross, J., & McGill, S. (2002). The frictional properties at the thoracic skin – fascia interface: Implications in spine manipulation. Clinical Biomechanics,17(4), 297-303.
  • Vardiman, J. Phillip, et al. “Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization: effects on the properties of human plantar flexors.” (2014).


Evaluation and Palpation

  • Seffinger, Michael A., et al. “Reliability of spinal palpation for diagnosis of back and neck pain: a systematic review of the literature.” Spine19 (2004): E413-E425.
  • Haneline, Michael T., and Morgan Young. “A review of intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of static spinal palpation: a literature synthesis.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics5 (2009): 379-386.
  • Haneline, Michael T., et al. “Spinal motion palpation: a comparison of studies that assessed intersegmental end feel vs excursion.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics8 (2008): 616-626.
  • Hestœk, Lise, and Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde. “Are chiropractic tests for the lumbo-pelvic spine reliable and valid? A systematic critical literature review.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics4 (2000): 258-275.
  • Stovall, Bradley A., Sejong Bae, and Shrawan Kumar. “Anterior superior iliac spine asymmetry assessment on a novel pelvic model: an investigation of accuracy and reliability.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics5 (2010): 378-385.
  • Stovall, Bradley A., and Shrawan Kumar. “Reliability of bony anatomic landmark asymmetry assessment in the lumbopelvic region: application to osteopathic medical education.” The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association11 (2010): 667.
  • Cooperstein, Robert, and Marc Lucente. “Comparison of Supine and Prone Methods of Leg Length Inequality Assessment.” Journal of chiropractic medicine2 (2017): 103-110.
  • Tullberg, Tycho, et al. “Manipulation does not alter the position of the sacroiliac joint: a roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.” Spine10 (1998): 1124-1128.
  • Dunning, James, et al. “CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION.” International journal of sports physical therapy4 (2017): 642.
  • Dunning, James, et al. “Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation.” BMC musculoskeletal disorders1 (2013): 24.
  • Wrobel, James S., and David G. Armstrong. “Reliability and validity of current physical examination techniques of the foot and ankle.” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association3 (2008): 197-206.
  • Elveru, Robert A., et al. “Methods for taking subtalar joint measurements: a clinical report.” Physical therapy5 (1988): 678-682.
  • Keenan, Anne-Maree, and Timothy M. Bach. “Clinicians’ assessment of the hindfoot: a study of reliability.” Foot & ankle international6 (2006): 451-460.
  • Harradine, Paul, Lucy Gates, and Catherine Bowen. “If it doesn’t work, why do we still do it? The continuing use of subtalar joint neutral theory in the face of overpowering critical research.” journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy3 (2018): 130-132.
  • Moseley, G. Lorimer, et al. “Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences35 (2008): 13169-13173.
  • Stanton, Tasha R., et al. “Feeling stiffness in the back: a protective perceptual inference in chronic back pain.” Scientific reports1 (2017): 9681.
  • Sabini, Rosanna C., Chadwick S. Leo, and Alton E. Moore. “The relation of experience in osteopathic palpation and object identification.” Chiropractic & manual therapies1 (2013): 38.


Joint Mobilization/Manipulation

  • Tullberg, Tycho, et al. “Manipulation does not alter the position of the sacroiliac joint: a roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.” Spine10 (1998): 1124-1128.
  • Fryer, Gary A., Jacob M. Mudge, and Patrick A. McLaughlin. “The effect of talocrural joint manipulation on range of motion at the ankle.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics6 (2002): 384-390.
  • Beazell, James R., et al. “Effects of a proximal or distal tibiofibular joint manipulation on ankle range of motion and functional outcomes in individuals with chronic ankle instability.” journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy2 (2012): 125-134.
  • Cosby, Nicole L., et al. “Immediate effects of anterior to posterior talocrural joint mobilizations following acute lateral ankle sprain.” Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy2 (2011): 76-83.
  • Loudon, Janice K., Michael P. Reiman, and Jonathan Sylvain. “The efficacy of manual joint mobilisation/manipulation in treatment of lateral ankle sprains: a systematic review.” Br J Sports Med5 (2014): 365-370.


“Trigger Points”

  • Wolfe, Frederick, et al. “The fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes: a preliminary study of tender points and trigger points in persons with fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome and no disease.” The Journal of rheumatology6 (1992): 944-951.
  • Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César, and Jan Dommerholt. “International consensus on diagnostic criteria and clinical considerations of myofascial trigger points: A Delphi Study.” Pain Medicine1 (2017): 142-150.
  • Quintner, John L., and Milton L. Cohen. “Referred pain of peripheral nerve origin: an alternative to the” myofascial pain” construct.” Clinical Journal of Pain3 (1994): 243-251.
  • Quintner, John L., Geoffrey M. Bove, and Milton L. Cohen. “A critical evaluation of the trigger point phenomenon.” Rheumatology3 (2014): 392-399.


  Soft tissue

  • Cottingham, J., Porges, S., & Lyon, T. (1988). Effects of soft tissue mobilization (Rolfing pelvic lift) on parasympathetic tone in two age groups. Physical Therapy,68(3), 352-356.
  • Diego, M., & Field, T. (2009). Moderate pressure massage elicits a parasympathetic nervous system response. International Journal of Neuroscience,119(5), 630-638.
  • Sabini, Rosanna C., Chadwick S. Leo, and Alton E. Moore. “The relation of experience in osteopathic palpation and object identification.” Chiropractic & manual therapies1 (2013): 38.


Neuro 101 and Neurophysiologic Manual Therapy Framework

  • Espinosa-Medina, Isabel, et al. “The sacral autonomic outflow is sympathetic.” Science6314 (2016): 893-897.
  • Sapunar, D., Kostic, S., Banozic, A., & Puljak, L. (2012). Dorsal root ganglion – a potential new therapeutic target for neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain Research,5, 31-38.
  • Sun, Q., Tu, H., Xing, G., Han, J., & Wan, Y. (2005). Ectopic discharge from injured nerve fibers are highly correlated with tactile allodynia only in early, but not late, stage in rats with spinal nerve ligation. Experimental Neurology,191(1), 128-136.
  • Rosa, A., & Fantozzi, R. (2013). The role of histamine in neurogenic inflammation. British Journal of Pharmacology,170(1), 38-45.
  • Lederman, Eyal. “A process approach in osteopathy: beyond the structural model.” International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine23 (2017): 22-35.
  • Bialosky, Joel E., et al. “The mechanisms of manual therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain: a comprehensive model.” Manual therapy5 (2009): 531-538.
  • Ge, Weiqing, Emily Roth, and Alyssa Sansone. “A quasi-experimental study on the effects of instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization on mechanosensitive neurons.” Journal of physical therapy science4 (2017): 654-657.
  • Louw, Adriaan, et al. “The effect of manual therapy and neuroplasticity education on chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.” Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy5 (2017): 227-234.
  • Darlow, Ben, et al. “The enduring impact of what clinicians say to people with low back pain.” The Annals of Family Medicine6 (2013): 527-534.


Physical Interaction with the Nervous System – Neurodynamics to Dermoneuromodulation

  • Coppieters, Michel W., Ali M. Alshami, and Paul W. Hodges. “An experimental pain model to investigate the specificity of the neurodynamic test for the median nerve in the differential diagnosis of hand symptoms.” Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation10 (2006): 1412-1417.
  • Boyd, Benjamin S., et al. “Mechanosensitivity of the lower extremity nervous system during straight-leg raise neurodynamic testing in healthy individuals.” journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy11 (2009): 780-790.
  • Coppieters, Michel W., and David S. Butler. “Do ‘sliders’ slide and ‘tensioners’ tension? An analysis of neurodynamic techniques and considerations regarding their application.” Manual therapy3 (2008): 213-221.
  • Coppieters, Michel W., et al. “Addition of test components during neurodynamic testing: effect on range of motion and sensory responses.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy5 (2001): 226-237.
  • Petersen, Cheryl M., et al. “Upper limb neurodynamic test of the radial nerve: a study of responses in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects.” Journal of Hand Therapy4 (2009): 344-354.
  • Trainor, Kate, and Mark A. Pinnington. “Reliability and diagnostic validity of the slump knee bend neurodynamic test for upper/mid lumbar nerve root compression: a pilot study.” Physiotherapy1 (2011): 59-64.
  • Moseley, G. Lorimer, Michael K. Nicholas, and Paul W. Hodges. “A randomized controlled trial of intensive neurophysiology education in chronic low back pain.” The Clinical journal of pain5 (2004): 324-330.
  • Kuilart, Kate Elissa, et al. “The active knee extension test and Slump test in subjects with perceived hamstring tightness.” International journal of osteopathic medicine3 (2005): 89-97.
  • Baselgia, Larissa T., et al. “Negative Neurodynamic Tests Do Not Exclude Neural Dysfunction in Patients With Entrapment Neuropathies.” Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation3 (2017): 480-486.
  • Spilman, B. (1999, March 1). Evolutionary neurology and neurotherapy: A new path to human health. Retrieved November 3, 2014, from
  • Lowrey, C., Strzalkowski, N., & Bent, L. (2010). Skin sensory information from the dorsum of the foot and ankle is necessary for kinesthesia at the ankle joint. Neuroscience Letters,485(1), 6-10.
  • Winstead-Fry, P., & Kijek, J. (1999). An integrative review and meta-analysis of therapeutic touch research. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine,5(6), 58-67.
Sensory Intergration
  • Mancini, Flavia, et al. “Whole‐body mapping of spatial acuity for pain and touch.” Annals of neurology6 (2014): 917-924.
  • Catley, Mark J., et al. “Is tactile acuity altered in people with chronic pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis.” The Journal of Pain10 (2014): 985-1000.
  • Wand, Benedict Martin, et al. “Lumbar tactile acuity is near identical between sides in healthy pain-free participants.” Manual therapy5 (2014): 504-507.
  • Adamczyk, Wacław, Kerstin Luedtke, and Edward Saulicz. “Lumbar Tactile Acuity in Patients With Low Back Pain and Healthy Controls.” The Clinical journal of pain1 (2018): 82-94.
  • Wand, Benedict Martin, et al. “Lumbar tactile acuity is near identical between sides in healthy pain-free participants.” Manual therapy5 (2014): 504-507.
  • Taylor, Keri S., Dimitri J. Anastakis, and Karen D. Davis. “Chronic pain and sensorimotor deficits following peripheral nerve injury.” PAIN®3 (2010): 582-591.
  • Barrett, Lisa Feldman, and W. Kyle Simmons. “Interoceptive predictions in the brain.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience7 (2015): 419.
  • Ridehalgh, Sandy-Hindmarch, Schmid. Validity of Clinical Small Fiber Sensory Testing to Detect Small Nerve Fiber Degeneration. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018 Jun 22:1-30. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2018.8230. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Brun, Clémentine, et al. “Sensory disturbances, but not motor disturbances, induced by sensorimotor conflicts are increased in the presence of acute pain.” Frontiers in integrative neuroscience11 (2017): 14.
  • Prochazka, Arthur. “Sensorimotor gain control: A basic strategy of motor systems?.” Progress in neurobiology4 (1989): 281-307.
  • Mogenson, Gordon J., Douglas L. Jones, and Chi Yiu Yim. “From motivation to action: functional interface between the limbic system and the motor system.” Progress in neurobiology2-3 (1980): 69-97.
  • Herbort, Oliver, and Martin V. Butz. “Too good to be true? Ideomotor theory from a computational perspective.” Frontiers in psychology3 (2012): 494.
  • Prinz, Wolfgang. “A common coding approach to perception and action.” Relationships between perception and action. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1990. 167-201.
  • Koch, Iring, Peter Keller, and Wolfgang Prinz. “The ideomotor approach to action control: Implications for skilled performance.” International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology4 (2004): 362-375.
Graded Motor Imagery
  • Harding-Forrester, Samuel, and Daniel E. Feldman. “Somatosensory maps.” Handbook of clinical neurology151 (2018): 73-102.
  • Preston, Catherine, and Roger Newport. “Analgesic effects of multisensory illusions in osteoarthritis.” Rheumatology12 (2011): 2314-2315.
  • Thieme, Holm, et al. “The Efficacy of Movement Representation Techniques for Treatment of Limb Pain—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” The Journal of Pain 17.2 (2016): 167-180.
  • Daffada, P. J., et al. “The impact of cortical remapping interventions on pain and disability in chronic low back pain: a systematic review.” Physiotherapy 101.1 (2015): 25-33.
    Decrease pain and disability post spine surgery
  • Louw, Adriaan, et al. “Moving without moving: immediate management following lumbar spine surgery using a graded motor imagery approach: a case report.” Physiotherapy theory and practice 31.7 (2015): 509-517.
  • Piekartz, Harry von, and Gesche Mohr. “Reduction of head and face pain by challenging lateralization and basic emotions: a proposal for future assessment and rehabilitation strategies.” Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 22.1 (2014): 24-35.
  • Donati, Ana RC, et al. “Long-Term Training with a Brain-Machine Interface-Based Gait Protocol Induces Partial Neurological Recovery in Paraplegic Patients.” Scientific Reports 6 (2016).
Pharmacology & Surgery
  • Louw A, Diener I, Landers MR, Puentedura EJ. Preoperative pain neuroscience education for lumbar radiculopathy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Spine. Aug 15 2014;39(18):1449-1457.
  • Louw, Adriaan, et al. “Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing preoperative neuroscience education for patients undergoing surgery for lumbar radiculopathy.” Journal of Spine Surgery4 (2016): 289.
  • Moseley, Lorimer. “Combined physiotherapy and education is efficacious for chronic low back pain.” Australian journal of physiotherapy4 (2002): 297-302.

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